Some pilgrims prayed at the Grand Mosque before heading to the Mina area or towards Mount Arafat, east of Makkah, where the Prophet is believed to have delivered his final sermon to followers.
They walked or took buses, with traffic police using loudspeakers to try to direct crowds speaking a medley of languages. They were dressed in simple white robes, marking a state of ihram (ritual purity).
Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam and comprises a journey to Makkah to perform religious rituals described in the Holy Quran.
The five-day ritual is a once-in-a-lifetime religious duty for every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it.
Their journey went smoothly despite the huge number of vehicles and pedestrians. Traffic patrols were assisted by security forces in their efforts to organize the traffic, guide pilgrims and maintain security.